We are committed to the advancement of the art and science of neurological surgery through excellence in research. The Neurosurgical Innovations and Training Centerworks on the development of new operative techniques in microneurosurgery, skull base surgery, vascular neurosurgery, and neuroendoscopy as well as the integration of neurosurgery with novel technologies. In addition, we aim to expand the current understanding of surgical neuroanatomy by integrating intricate cadaveric dissections with 3D visualization, virtual reality, and computer simulation in order to enhance neurosurgical training and practice.

Our current areas of research include minimally invasive and transtubular neurosurgery, surgical simulation and planning, surgical robotics, flexible endoscopy, flexible surgical instrumentation, white matter navigation, 3D printing, virtual and augmented reality, and operative techniques in microneurosurgery.

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Selected Publications
Click here to view all of our publications on PubMed

“How I Do It”—Skull Base Surgery
Bernardo A, Evins AI.
World Neurosurg. 2023;172:128-130. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.11.051.

Anterolateral Routes to the Skull Base—The Frontotemporal Approaches and Exposure of the Sellar and Parasellar Regions
Bernardo A, Evins AI.
World Neurosurg. 2023;172:131-145. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.11.055.

Transpetrosal Routes to the Skull Base—Anterior and Posterior Transpetrosal Approaches
Bernardo A, Evins AI.
World Neurosurg. 2023;172:146-162. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.11.054.

Posterolateral Routes to the Skull Base, Craniocervical Junction, and Jugular Foramen—The Far Lateral Transcondylar Approach and Combined Transpetrosal Transcervical Approaches
Bernardo A, Evins AI.
World Neurosurg. 2023;172:163-174. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.11.053.

Tailored Surgical Access to the Cavernous Sinus and Parasellar Region: Assessment of Cavernous Sinus Entry Corridors and the Periclinoid and Pericavernous Surgical Maneuvers
Bernardo A, Evins AI, Barbagli G, et al.
World Neurosurg. 2022;171C:e253-e275. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.12.002.

A Novel 3D Surgical Neuroanatomy Course for Medical Students: Outcomes From A Pilot 6-Week Elective
Evins AI, Rothbaum M, Kim N, et al.
J Clin Neurosci. 2023;107:91-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2022.12.009.

Developing a 3D Composite Training Model for Cranial Remodeling.
Cheng D, Yuan M, Perera I, O’Connor A, Evins AI, Imahiyerobo T, Souweidane M, Hoffman C
J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019;1-10. doi: 10.3171/2019.6.PEDS18773.

On the Surgical Implications of Peritrigeminal Perforating Vessels in Microvascular Decompression.
di Russo P, Xu T, Cohen MA, Perrini P, Stieg PE, Evins AI, Bernardo A
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019;17(2):193-201. doi: 10.1093/ons/opy325.

Preoperative Identification of the Initial Burr Hole Site in Retrosigmoid Craniotomies: A Teaching and Technical Note.
Zhou C, Evins AI, Boschi A, Tang Y, Li S, Przepiorka L, Sadhwani S, Stieg PE, Xu T, Bernardo A
Int J Med Robot. 2019 Jun;15(3):e1987. doi: 10.1002/rcs.1987

The Intracranial and Intracanalicular Optic Nerve as Seen Through Different Surgical Windows: Endoscopic Versus Transcranial.
Caporlingua A, Prior A, Cavagnaro M, Winston G, Oliveira DLC, Sadwhani SD, Alvarez Arias G, Schwalb JN, Akhbari M, Evins AI, Bernardo A
World Neurosurg. 2019 Apr;124:522-538. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.122.

On-Demand Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Printing of Custom Cranioplastic Prostheses.
Evins AI, Dutton J, Imam SS, Dadi AO, Xu T, Cheng D, Stieg PE, Bernardo A
Oper Neurosurg. 2018;15(3):341-349. doi: 10.1093/ons/opx280.

The Rectus Capitis Lateralis and the Condylar Triangle: Important Landmarks in Posterior and Lateral Approaches to the Jugular Foramen.
Cohen MA, Evins AI, Lapadula G, Arko L, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Neurosurg. 2017 Dec;127(6):1398-1406. doi: 10.3171/2016.9.JNS16723.

The Changing Face of Technologically Integrated Neurosurgery: Today’s High-Tech Operating Room.
Bernardo A.
World Neurosurg. 2017 Oct;106:1001-1014. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.159.

Virtual Reality and Simulation in Neurosurgical Training.
Bernardo A.
World Neurosurg. 2017 Oct;106:1015-1029. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.140.

The Orbit as Seen Through Different Surgical Windows: Extensive Anatomosurgical Study.
Bernardo A, Evins AI, Mattogno PP, Quiroga M, Zacharia BE.
World Neurosurg. 2017 Oct;106:1030-1046. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.158.

Establishment of Next-Generation Neurosurgery Research and Training Laboratory with Integrated Human Performance Monitoring.
Bernardo A.
World Neurosurg. 2017 Oct;106:991-1000. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.160.

Neurosurgical Postgraduate Training in China: Moving Toward a National Training Standard.
Xu T, Evins AI, Lin N, Chang J, Hu G, Hou L, Chen J, Bernardo A, Mao Y, Stieg PE.
World Neurosurg. 2016 Dec;96:410-416. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.09.034.

The Role of Alternative Anastomosis Sites in Occipital Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass in the Absence of the Caudal Loop Using the Far-Lateral Approach.
Fukuda H, Evins AI, Iwasaki K, Hattori I, Murao K, Kurosaki Y, Chin M, Stieg PE, Yamagata S, Bernardo A.
J Neurosurg. 2016 Apr 1:1-11. doi: 10.3171/2015.11.JNS151385.

Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome and Intracranial Vascular Pathologies.
Kapoor R, Evins AI, Steitieh D, Bernardo A, Stieg PE.
Fam Cancer. 2015 Dec;14(4):595-7. doi: 10.1007/s10689-015-9807-y.

A Percutaneous Transtubular Middle Fossa Approach for Intracanalicular Tumors.
Bernardo A, Evins AI, Tsiouris AJ, Stieg PE.
World Neurosurg. 2015 Jul;84(1):132-46. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.02.042.

Endoscopic Lumbar Foraminotomy.
Evins AI, Banu MA, Njoku I Jr, Elowitz EH, Härtl R, Bernado A, Hofstetter CP.
J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Apr;22(4):730-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.10.025.

The Pterional Port in Dual-Port Endoscopy: A 2D and 3D Cadaveric Study.
Beer-Furlan A, Evins AI, Rigante L, Anichini G, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Feb;76(1):80-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1390398.

A 3D Endoscopic Transtubular Transcallosal Approach to the Third Ventricle.
Shoakazemi A, Evins AI, Burrell JC, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Neurosurg. 2015 Mar;122(3):564-73. doi: 10.3171/2014.11.JNS14341.

Three-Dimensional Endoscope-Assisted Surgical Approach to the Foramen Magnum and Craniovertebral Junction: Minimizing Bone Resection with the Aid of the Endoscope.
Anichini G, Evins AI, Boeris D, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
World Neurosurg. 2014 Dec;82(6):e797-805. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2014.05.031.

Interhemispheric Endoscopic Fenestration of the Lamina Terminalis through a Single Frontal Burr Hole.
Beer-Furlan A, Pinto FG, Evins AI, Rigante L, Anichini G, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014 Aug;75(4):268-72. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1371521.

Dual-Port 2D and 3D Endoscopy: Expanding the Limits of the Endonasal Approaches to Midline Skull Base Lesions with Lateral Extension.
Beer-Furlan A, Evins AI, Rigante L, Anichini G, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014 Jun;75(3):187-97. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1364165.

A Combined Dual-Port Endoscope-Assisted Pre- and Retrosigmoid Approach to the Cerebellopontine Angle: An Extensive Anatomo-Surgical Study.
Bernardo A, Boeris D, Evins AI, Anichini G, Stieg PE.
Neurosurg Rev. 2014 Oct;37(4):597-608. doi: 10.1007/s10143-014-0552-8.

The Meningo-Orbital Band: Microsurgical Anatomy and Surgical Detachment of the Membranous Structures through a Frontotemporal Craniotomy with Removal of the Anterior Clinoid Process.
Fukuda H, Evins AI, Burrell JC, Iwasaki K, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014 Apr;75(2):125-32. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1359302.

Expanding the Borders: The Evolution of Neurosurgical Approaches.
Ottenhausen M, Bodhinayake I, Evins AI, Banu M, Boockvar JA, Bernardo A.
Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Apr;36(4):E11. doi: 10.3171/2014.2.FOCUS13547. Review.

Partial Anterior Petrosectomies for Upper Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysms: A Cadaveric and Clinical Study.
Fukuda H, Evins AI, Burrell JC, Medda A, Iwasaki K, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
World Neurosurg. 2014 Dec;82(6):1113-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2014.03.034.

Endoscopic fenestration of the Lamina Terminalis: Alternatives to the Classic Third Ventriculostomy.
Beer-Furlan A, Pinto F, Teixeira M, Rigante L, Evins AI, Bernardo A.
J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2014 Sep;75(5):410-2. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1368693.

Endoscopic Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy and Optic Nerve Decompression through a Pterional Port.
Beer-Furlan A, Evins AI, Rigante L, Burrell JC, Anichini G, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
J Clin Neurosci. 2014 May;21(5):836-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2013.10.006.

Complete Bilateral Arcuate Foramina and Atlantoaxial Subluxation.
Rigante L, Evins AI, Burrell J, Beer-Furlan A, Bernardo A.
Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2013 Dec;155(12):2357-8. doi: 10.1007/s00701-013-1899-2. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

A Safe and Effective Technique for Harvesting the Occipital Artery for Posterior Fossa Bypass Surgery: A Cadaveric Study.
Fukuda H, Evins AI, Burrell JC, Stieg PE, Bernardo A.
World Neurosurg. 2014 Sep-Oct;82(3-4):e459-65. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2013.09.015.

The Intracranial Facial Nerve As Seen through Different Surgical Windows: An Extensive Anatomosurgical Study.
Bernardo A, Evins AI, Visca A, Stieg PE.
Neurosurgery. 2013 Jun;72(2 Suppl Operative):ons194-207; discussion ons207. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827e5844.

Systematic Reviews in Neurosurgery – The Ongoing Quest for Quality.
Matis G, Silva D, Chrysou O, Birbilis T, Bernardo A, Stieg P.
Turk Neurosurg. 2012;22(4):524.

Robotics for Spinal Operations: Reality or Alice in Wonderland?
Matis GK, Silva D, Chrysou OI, Birbilis TA, Bernardo A, Stieg PE.
Int J Med Robot. 2012 Mar;8(1):125-6. doi: 10.1002/rcs.433.

Surgical Approaches to the Orbital Apex: Comparison of Endoscopic Endonasal and Transcranial Approaches using a Novel 3D Endoscope.
Roth J, Fraser JF, Singh A, Bernardo A, Anand VK, Schwartz TH.
Orbit. 2011 Jan;30(1):43-8. doi: 10.3109/01676830.2010.543004.